The Department of Sociology at Masaryk University was established in 1921, and it is one of the oldest sociological institutes in Europe. Under the long-time leadership of Inocenc Arnošt Bláha – the founder of the department, but also one of the founders of Czech sociology and student of Emile Durkheim, sociology at Masaryk University garnered its distinctive professional profile and status. In the history of Czech sociology, the interwar “Brno school of sociology” became a thriving movement. For example, in 1926, Emanuel Chalupný received a professorship, and J.L. Fischer and others engaged in developing sociology as a discipline. The prestigious journal Sociological Revue, which was considered one of the best European journals, represented another significant milestone for the department.

After 1948, the department was eliminated by the government. It was restored in the mid-1960s, but after a short period of re-development, the department's activity was severely limited. During the period of “normalization” in the 1970s and 1980s, the atmosphere at the department was nevertheless relatively liberal, especially when Jaroslav Střítecký chaired it. In the Czechoslovakian context, the department represented a unique arena for the professional development of novice sociologists (Jan Keller, Ladislav Rabušic, etc.) or politically undesirable sociologists (Ivo Možný, Lubomír Nový, etc.). The department played an essential role for colleagues outside of Brno by hosting regular symposia about social issues.

After 1990, the department went through significant organizational changes under the leadership of Ivo Možný: the radical reformation of teaching methods, the opening of international cooperation and competition, and a strong emphasis on research activities. The number of students increased. The department became where new disciplines were developing, like social politics, social work, media studies, and environmental humanities. It also significantly participated in the process of reconstruction and rehabilitation of social sciences in the Czech Republic. In 1998, the department of sociology became part, and at the same time, the main driving force, of the newly established Faculty of Social Studies.

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